Animal Models for Translational Research on Shoulder Pathologies: From Bench to Bedside

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Several animal models have been used for in vivo and in vitro shoulder research. In vitro models, consisting of cadaveric specimens, are useful in providing basic understanding of the functioning of the shoulder and for biomechanical experiments. In vivo models provide the means to model living phenomena, such as tendon healing process, tendinopathy, instability, and adaptive responses to surgery. However, intrinsic differences among different species make translation to human shoulder pathologies difficult. Most of the animals used in experimental settings are quadrupeds, using the forelimbs for weight-bearing during locomotion, with no or minimal overhead activity. The various animal models already used to study shoulder pathologies are presented in this article. However, there is a lack of validation for these animal models, which provides challenge to the further research in this field.

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