Anatomic and Biomechanical Fundamentals of the Thrower Shoulder

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The act of throwing requires proper functioning and timing of the entire kinetic chain musculature to generate a coordinated movement pattern for ball delivery. The role of the shoulder complex is vital in the transmission of force from the lower extremities and trunk to the arm and hand. A review of the anatomic and biomechanical factors of the shoulder girdle will be discussed as it pertains to the thrower. An understanding of the relationship of the muscles, ligaments, and osseous structures is essential to the successful diagnosis and treatment of shoulder pathology and dysfunction.

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