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Shoulder arthroscopic procedures have become common in today’s orthopedic practice. The safety of shoulder arthroscopy though well established, is not without complications both minor and significant. The true incidence of complications is difficult to identify in the current literature. However, as with all procedures, complications associated with shoulder arthroscopy do occur. General complications (ie, infection), those specific to shoulder arthroscopy (ie, positioning) and those associated with specific procedures (ie, failure) all have been recognized. The purpose of this article is to review the current literature regarding complications in shoulder arthroscopy, provide insight into the risk factors and types of complications and to provide guidelines on the prevention and management of complications if and when they occur.