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Arthroscopy is a valuable tool in the diagnosis and treatment of various elbow and wrist disorders. Because of the close proximity of vital neurovascular structures, arthroscopy of these joints must be undertaken with a thorough understanding of the anatomy and with experience with the surgical procedures. Although there are reports of complications from procedures in both joints, there is a lack of agreement as to the rate and types of complications. We reviewed the literature to help the reader develop a comprehensive understanding of the risks and plentiful complications associated with arthroscopic procedures of the elbow and wrist and to describe strategies to prevent adverse outcomes.