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The throwing athlete represents a very interesting and challenging patient population to treat. Few other athletes require the unique combination of stability combined with inherent laxity to allow them to achieve peak performance. Treatment of them and their injuries necessitates an understanding of this phenomenon, recognition of common pathologies encountered, and experience in the process. In this section, we will review several of the most common entities that we encounter in the care of throwing athletes and the current literature on these topics as well as describing our approach to the decision-making process with regards to their treatment. We will also review our surgical techniques for each of these when nonoperative care has failed or acute intervention is deemed necessary.