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The overhead athlete is defined as an athlete who uses his/her hand in an overhead position. The motion in the overhead athlete is a highly skilled movement performed at extremely high velocity, which requires flexibility, muscular strength, coordination, synchronicity, and neuromuscular control of the whole body. In this overview, we will discuss the most common pathologies seen at the posterior side of the elbow such as posteromedial impingement, proximal ulnar stress fractures, and triceps pathology. Specific nonsurgical and operative treatment guidelines for the overhead athlete’s elbow are also discussed.