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Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) has been linked to specific patterns of cartilage damage. The goal of this systematic review is to answer the following questions: (1) Does FAI contribute to the development and progression of hip osteoarthritis (OA)? (2) If FAI does contribute to the development and progression of hip OA, does CAM-type or pincer-type impingement play a greater role? A search of the electronic databases, MEDLINE and EMBASE, was performed to identify relevant studies performed between January 1, 2000 and January 1, 2015 that link the pathophysiology of OA to FAI. Methodological quality of included studies was assessed by 2 reviewers using the Methodological Index for Non-Randomized Studies criteria. An intraclass correlation coefficient with 95% confidence intervals was used to determine agreement between reviewers on quality scores. Overall 35 studies were identified that met inclusion criteria. Certain morphologic features of CAM-type FAI, particularly elevated alpha angle, do seem to predispose select patients to radiographic progression of hip OA. In comparison with pincer-type impingement, the association between CAM-type impingement and hip OA is better understood. Long-term surgical outcome studies will further delineate the role of FAI in the development and progression of hip OA.