Evidence and Approach for Management of Labral Deficiency: The Role for Labral Reconstruction


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Abstract

The acetabular labrum is a complex fibrocartilaginous structure with unique anatomy. Its unique anatomy imparts biomechanical functions important in hip stability, synovial fluid dynamics, contact pressure dissipation, proprioception, and nociception. Although the importance of labral preservation through surgical repair techniques has been increasingly recognized, situations do occur where the labrum is either absent, deficient, or simply irreparable. In these situations, both open and arthroscopic reconstructive techniques have been described to help restore the function of the native labral tissue. Efforts should be made to maintain or reestablish the native structure and function of the labrum in young patients with at least 2 mm of joint space based on the available biomechanical and clinical evidence. Return to sport, significant improvements in pain and function, high levels of satisfaction, and avoidance of hip arthroplasty have been shown in patients undergoing labral reconstruction. Although short-term results of labral reconstruction are promising, long-term follow-up and comparative studies will be necessary to further define its indications and contraindications.

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