Biological Augmentation of ACL Repair and Reconstruction: Current Status and Future Perspective


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Abstract

Historically, anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) suture repair mostly resulted in failure because of intra-articular hypovascularity and poor intrinsic healing capacity of ACL. ACL reconstruction was therefore deemed the gold standard with a high success rate because of more evolved surgical technique. There are, however, clinical and subclinical disadvantages of reconstruction; low rate in full recovery to sports, donor harvest morbidity, tunnel enlargement, and incomplete microscopic healing of the graft. Recent experimental and clinical studies on biological augmentation of mesenchymal stem cells, platelet-rich plasma, or the other biologic agents with scaffold suggested potential feasibility of positive effects by such bio-therapies for both ACL repair and reconstruction. Biological augmentation of ACL surgery is still in the exploratory stages and more evidence from preclinical and clinical studies is required for implementation in clinical practice.

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