Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Academic Interventions and Modifications on Student Behavior Outcomes

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The current study examined the effect of academic interventions and modifications on behavioral outcomes in a meta-analysis of 32 single-case design studies. Academic interventions included modifying task difficulty, providing instruction in reading, mathematics, or writing, and contingent reinforcement for academic performance. There was an overall small to moderate effect (ϕ = .56) on behavioral outcomes, with a stronger effect on increasing time on task (ϕ = .64) than on decreasing disruptive behavior (ϕ = .42). There was a small effect for using a performance-based contingent reinforcer (ϕ = .48). Interventions completed in an individual setting resulted in a moderate to large effects on behavior outcomes. Results of the current meta-analysis suggest that academic interventions can offer both positive academic and behavioral outcomes. Practical implications and suggestions for future research are included.

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