Antifungal Prophylaxis in Lung Transplantation

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Fungal infections are among the most serious complications of lung transplantation. The 1-year cumulative incidence of invasive fungal infections in lung transplant recipients is 6 to 10%, which is higher than most other solid organ transplant recipients. Aspergillus spp. are the most common etiologic agents, but Candida spp., non-Aspergillus mycelial fungi, Cryptococcus, Pneumocystis, and endemic mycoses can cause active infections in this population. Clinical manifestations of fungal infection in lung transplant recipients are protean, and include invasive pulmonary disease, airway and anastomotic infections, posttransplant empyemas, and disseminated infections. Most centers employ either universal or targeted antifungal prophylaxis in some form, but the agents, doses, durations, and monitoring strategies vary widely from one center to another. This review discusses the salient fungal organisms responsible for infection in lung transplant recipients and management strategies for prevention.

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