Indeterminate Pulmonary Nodules: How to Minimize Harm

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Each year, more than 1 million persons worldwide are found to have a lung nodule that carries a risk of being malignant. In reality, the vast majority of lung nodules are benign, whether identified by screening or incidentally. The consequences of delaying or missing the diagnosis of lung cancer can be substantial, as can be the consequences of invasive procedures on patients with benign lung nodules. The challenge for the clinician caring for these patients is to differentiate between benign and malignant nodules with the least harm possible. In this review, we will discuss management strategies of the indeterminate pulmonary nodule and will review recent advances and harm-reduction strategies.

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