Ground States of Lattice Gases with “Almost” Convex Repulsive Interactions
To the best of our knowledge there is only one example of a lattice system with long-range two-body interactions whose ground states have been determined exactly: the one-dimensional lattice gas with purely repulsive and strictly convex interactions. Its ground-state particle configurations do not depend on any other details of the interactions and are known as the generalized Wigner lattices or the most homogeneous particle configurations. The question of the stability of this beautiful and universal result against certain perturbations of the repulsive and convex interactions is interesting in itself. Additional motivations for studying such perturbations come from surface physics (adsorption on crystal surfaces) and theories of correlated fermion systems (recent results on ground-state particle configurations of the one-dimensional spinless Falicov–Kimball model). As a first step, we studied a one-dimensional lattice gas whose two-body interactions are repulsive and strictly convex only from distance 2 on, while its value at distance 1 can be positive or negative, but close to zero. We showed that such a modification makes the ground-state particle configurations sensitive to the tail of the interactions; if the sum of the strengths of the interactions from the distance 3 on is small with respect to the strength of the interaction at distance 2, then particles form two-particle lattice-connected aggregates that are distributed in the most homogeneous way. Consequently, despite breaking of the convexity property, the ground state exhibits the feature known as the complete devil's staircase.