The rate of isolation of Chlamydia trachomatis from cervical and urethral specimens from 99 culture-positive female partners of men with nongonococcal urcthritis who were attending a gynecological outpatient clinic was correlated with the clinical status of the women. The agent was recovered from both sites in 46 women, from the cervix only in 28, and from the urethra only in 25 women. Urethral symptoms were reported by 38 (54%) of those with positive urcthral cultures, as compared with six (21%) of those with positive cervical cultures only (P < 0.01). Significant bacteriuria was found in only three patients with urethra! symptoms; two of them had negative urethra! cultures for C. trachomatis. Frequencies of cervicitis, rises in liter of antibody, and geometric mean liters of immunofluorescent anlibody to C. trachomatis did not differ significantly among the three groups.