Bacterial Vaginosis Among Pregnant Women in Burkina Faso

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Abstract

Objectives:

Bacterial vaginosis (bv) is a common cause of abnormal or altered vaginal discharge in women of childbearing age. Its association with obstetric and gynecologic complications and HIV are increasingly recognized. Few population-based surveys of BV have been conducted in Africa. The objective of the study was to examine the role of genital infections including Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and demographic factors on the prevalence of BV among pregnant women in Burkina Faso.

Methods:

Consenting pregnant women from Burkina Faso answered a face-to-face interview on their demographic characteristics. Then, genital and blood swabs were collected and tested for BV and other genital infections. Univariable and multivariable models were used to investigate the risk factors of BV.

Results:

Among the 2133 women included in the analyses (over 2284 enrolled), the prevalence of BV was 6.4% [95% confidence interval (CI), 5.5%–7.6%], ranging from 3% to 12% between regions. In multivariable analyses, HSV-2 [odds ratio (OR), 1.64; 95% CI 1.04–2.59) was the only genital infection that remained significantly associated with BV. Other factors related to BV were history of abortion (OR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.01–2.43) and geographical origin. HIV infection (OR, 1.98; 95% CI, 0.90–5.20) and polygamy (OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.00–2.36) tended to be associated with BV without reaching statistical significance.

Conclusion:

The prevalence of BV among pregnant women was lower than expected, with large geographical disparities. Our data confirm the potential interaction between BV and HSV-2.

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