Emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a serious concern and combination therapy has been recommended to delay the onset of treatment failures. Gentamicin, an old and inexpensive antibiotic, is recommended in combination with azithromycin for treatment failures cases with the first-line regimen as per the latest Centers for Disease Control and Prevention sexually transmitted disease treatment guidelines. However, not much literature is available on in vitro and in vivo efficacy of this combination. Therefore, this study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro synergy of gentamicin in combination with azithromycin and 5 other antimicrobials.Methods
In vitro synergy of gentamicin in combination with cefixime, ceftriaxone, spectinomycin, azithromycin, moxifloxacin, and ertapenem was determined by Etest for 75 N. gonorrhoeae strains, of which 65 were MDR and one was XDR. Fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) of ≤0.5 and >4.0 denoted synergy and antagonism respectively.Results
Maximum efficacy of gentamicin was observed in combination with ertapenem (geometric mean FICI, 0.56) followed by cefixime (FICI, 0.87). There was no antagonism for both these combinations. However, antagonism was demonstrated in 5.3%, 8%, 8%, and 10.7% strains when gentamicin was paired with spectinomycin (FICI, 1.34), ceftriaxone (FICI, 1.13), azithromycin (FICI, 1.49), and moxifloxacin (FICI, 1.30), respectively.Conclusions
The findings suggest that gentamicin significantly enhances the in vitro therapeutic potency of ertapenem and cefixime which will be potentially effective to control the spread of MDR and XDR N. gonorrhoeae. The study warrants more in vitro studies and clinical trials for gentamicin + azithromycin and other 3 combinations because of considerable antagonism.