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To test the efficacy of a single-session, clinic-based intervention designed to promote condom use among young black men who have sex with men (YBMSM).Six hundred YBMSM were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial, using a 12-month observation period. An intent-to-treat analysis was performed, with multiple imputation for missing data.Compared with the reference group, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected men in the intervention group had 64% greater odds of reporting consistent condom use for anal receptive sex over 12 months (estimated odds ratio, 1.64; 95% confidence interval, 1.23–2.17, P = 0.001). Also, compared with the reference group, HIV-uninfected men in the intervention group had more than twice the odds of reporting consistent condom use for anal receptive sex over 12 months (estimated odds ratio, 2.14; 95% confidence interval, 1.74–2.63, P < 0.001). Significant intervention effects relative to incident sexually transmitted diseases were not observed.A single-session, clinic-based, intervention may help protect HIV-uninfected YBMSM against HIV acquisition and HIV-infected YBMSM from transmitting the virus to insertive partners.