Early Evidence of the Effectiveness of the Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Program Against Anogenital Warts in Manitoba, Canada: A Registry Cohort Study

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We assessed the effectiveness of the quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine (qHPV) vaccination program in Manitoba, Canada, in reducing incident anogenital warts (AGWs) and to what extent effectiveness depends on age at vaccination and number of doses.


Female participants 9 years or older who received the qHPV in Manitoba between September 2006 and March 2013 (n = 31,464) through the publicly funded school-based program and a high-risk catch-up program were included. They were matched on age and area of residence to unvaccinated female participants. Information on incident AGWs was obtained from provincial administrative databases using validated algorithms. Using stratified Cox regression models, we estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for the association between qHPV and AGWs.


For female participants vaccinated at age 18 years or younger, receipt of qHPV was associated with a 40% reduction in AGW risk (HR, 0.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.4–0.8). Further adjustment for socioeconomic and medical history did not alter this estimate. For women vaccinated at age 19 years or older, we saw an increase in AGW incidence, especially among those who were sexually active (HR, 2.8; 95% CI, 2.1–3.7). Among female participants vaccinated at age 18 years or younger, risk of AGWs was lowest among those who received 3 doses, corresponding to a vaccine effectiveness of 56% (95% CI, 30%–70%). For women vaccinated at older age, risk of AGWs remained increased regardless of the number of doses.


Women vaccinated at an older (≥19 years) age may be less protected against AGWs, particularly if sexually active before vaccine administration. Further efforts should be targeted at increasing vaccine uptake among preadolescents before the initiation of sexual activity.

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