High Baseline Anal Human Papillomavirus and Abnormal Anal Cytology in a Phase 3 Trial of the Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus Vaccine in Human Immunodeficiency Virus–Infected Individuals Older Than 26 Years: ACTG 5298

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The quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine (qHPV; types 6, 11, 16, 18) is indicated for men and women aged 9 to 26 years to prevent HPV associated anogenital high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) and cancer. ACTG 5298 was a randomized placebo controlled Phase 3 study in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected men who have sex with men, and women of qHPV to prevent persistent anal HPV infection. Baseline data are presented here.


Human immunodeficiency virus–infected men who have sex with men, and women 27 years or older without previous anogenital or oral cancer were enrolled. Baseline anal cytology, high-resolution anoscopy and collection of anal, oral, and vaginal specimens for HPV genotyping were performed and acceptability assessed.


Five hundred seventy-five (575) participants were enrolled (82% men and 18% women). Median age was 47 years. Race/ethnicity was 46% white, 31% black, and 20% Hispanic. Plasma HIV-1 RNA was less than 50 copies/mL in 83% and median CD4 T count was 602 cells/μL. Abnormal anal cytology was detected in 62%, with corresponding HSIL on biopsy (bHSIL) in 33%. Anal HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18 were detected in 25%, 13%, 32%, and 18% of the participants, respectively. Prevalence of 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 qHPV types was 40%, 38%, 17%, 4%, and 1%, respectively. Oral infection with 1 or more qHPV type was detected in 10% of the participants. Study procedures were generally acceptable.


At study baseline, there was a high prevalence of abnormal anal cytology, bHSIL, and HPV infection. Sixty percent of the participants had anal infection with preventable qHPV types.

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