Growth factors and cytokines mediate communication between the epithelial and stromal compartments of the prostate. In prostate cancer (PCa), changes in the spatial arrangements of the two compartments (i.e. basement membrane invasion), DNA mutations, or cellular dedifferentiation (i.e. myofibroblasts) leads to significant changes in gene expression within both compartments. This results in altered cytokine and/or growth factor signaling in PCa. Recently, a stromal-specific androgen receptor (AR) coactivator, Hic-5/ARA55, has been identified that may play a role in regulating expression of the growth factor and/or cytokine expression in the prostate. Specifically, Hic-5/ARA55 expression influences androgen-induced keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) expression in WPMY-1 prostate stromal cells. Because Hic-5/ARA55's expression is also altered in PCa, it may play a role in the differential cellular signaling events that occur during tumor progression.