Synthetic approaches towards the multi target drug spironolactone and its potent analogues/derivatives

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Abstract

Spironolactone is a well-known multi-target drug and is specifically used for the treatment of high blood pressure and heart failure. It is also used for the treatment of edema, cirrhosis of the liver, malignant, pediatric, nephrosis and primary hyperaldosteronism. Spironolactone in association with thiazide diuretics treats hypertension and in association with furosemide treats bronchopulmonary dyspepsia. The therapeutic mechanism of action of spironolactone involves binding to intracellular mineralocorticoids receptors (MRs) in kidney epithelial cells, thereby inhibiting the binding of aldosterone. Since its first synthesis in 1957 there are several synthetic approaches have been reported throughout the years, Synthetic community has devoted efforts to improve the synthesis of spironolactone and to synthesize its analogues and derivatives. This review aims to provide comprehensive insight for the synthetic endeavors devoted towards the synthesis of a versatile drug spironolactone and its analogues/derivatives.

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