Regulation of liver X receptor target genes by 22-functionalized oxysterols. Synthesis,in silicoandin vitroevaluations

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Abstract

The endogenous oxysterol 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol (22RHC, 1) is an LXR agonist which upregulates genes of critical involvement in human cholesterol- and lipid metabolism. In contrast, its synthetic epimer 22(S)-hydroxycholesterol (22SHC, 8) has shown specific antagonistic effects in recent studies, avoiding unwanted side effects provided by potent LXR agonists. In terms of LXR modulation, the aim of this study was to compare 22SHC (8), 22RHC (1) and synthesized ligands with keto- and amide functionality in the 22nd position of the cholesterol scaffold. 22SHC (8) and 22RHC (1) performed as expected while 22-ketocholesterol (22KC, 10) revealed an attractive in vitro profile for further investigation in terms of anti-atherosclerotic properties as selective upregulation of the ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCA1 was observed. A new synthesized amide derivate, Fernholtz cyclohexylamide (13) was shown to reduce lipogenesis in a dose-responsive manner and abolish the effect of the potent LXR agonist T0901317 when administered simultaneously.

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