Estradiol mediates relaxation of porcine lower esophageal sphincter

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Most pregnant women have symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) during pregnancy. Postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy is associated with GERD. The effects of estradiol on lower esophageal sphincter (LES) motility and GERD are not clearly known. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of estradiol on the motility of the porcine LES. Relaxations of clasp and sling strips of porcine LES caused by estradiol were measured using isometric transducers. We investigated the mechanism of estradiol-induced relaxation of the porcine LES using tetraethylammonium, apamine, iberiotoxin, glibenclamide, KT5720, KT5823, NG-nitro-l-arginine, tetrodotoxin, and ω-conotoxin GVIA. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were performed to determine the existence of the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) in the porcine LES. In endothelin-1-precontracted porcine LES strips, estradiol caused marked relaxations in a concentration-dependent manner. The mechanism of estradiol-induced relaxation on the porcine LES was associated with the potassium channel. Reverse transcription PCR analysis and IHC revealed that GPER was expressed in the sling and clasp fibers of the porcine LES. This finding suggests that GPER mediates the relaxation of the porcine LES. Estradiol may play a role in LES motility.

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