Stimulator of interferon genes (STING) is a cytosolic receptor that senses both exogenous and endogenous cytosolic cyclic dinucleotides (CDNs), activating TBK1/IRF3 (interferon regulatory factor 3), NF-κB (nuclear factor κB), and STAT6 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 6) signaling pathways to induce robust type I interferon and proinflammatory cytokine responses. CDN ligands were formulated with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)–producing cellular cancer vaccines—termed STINGVAX—that demonstrated potent in vivo antitumor efficacy in multiple therapeutic models of established cancer. We found that rationally designed synthetic CDN derivative molecules, including one with an Rp,Rp dithio diastereomer and noncanonical c[A(2′,5′)pA(3′,5′)p] phosphate bridge structure, enhanced antitumor efficacy of STINGVAX in multiple aggressive therapeutic models of established cancer in mice. Antitumor activity was STING-dependent and correlated with increased activation of dendritic cells and tumor antigen–specific CD8+ T cells. Tumors from STINGVAX-treated mice demonstrated marked PD-L1 (programmed death ligand 1) up-regulation, which was associated with tumor-infiltrating CD8+IFNγ+ T cells. When combined with PD-1 (programmed death 1) blockade, STINGVAX induced regression of palpable, poorly immunogenic tumors that did not respond to PD-1 blockade alone.