The Fas/Fap-1/Cav-1 complex regulates IL-1RA secretion in mesenchymal stem cells to accelerate wound healing

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Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are capable of secreting exosomes, extracellular vesicles, and cytokines to regulate cell and tissue homeostasis. However, it is unknown whether MSCs use a specific exocytotic fusion mechanism to secrete exosomes and cytokines. We show that Fas binds with Fas-associated phosphatase–1 (Fap-1) and caveolin-1 (Cav-1) to activate a common soluble N-ethylmaleimide–sensitive factor (NSF) attachment protein receptor (SNARE)–mediated membrane fusion mechanism to release small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) in MSCs. Moreover, we reveal that MSCs produce and secrete interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) associated with sEVs to maintain rapid wound healing in the gingiva via the Fas/Fap-1/Cav-1 cascade. Tumor necrosis factor–α (TNF-α) serves as an activator to up-regulate Fas and Fap-1 expression via the nuclear factor κB pathway to promote IL-1RA release. This study identifies a previously unknown Fas/Fap-1/Cav-1 axis that regulates SNARE-mediated sEV and IL-1RA secretion in stem cells, which contributes to accelerated wound healing.

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