To corroborate thiopental protection from cerebral anoxia after cardiopulmonary arrest, 23 sedated, curarized, adult dogs were asphyxiated by plugging the endotracheal tube. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was started 7 minutes after electrocortical silence. Twelve animals received no other treatment (controls), 10 regained consciousness and spontaneous respirations, but remained decerebrate, blind, unable to drink or feed. Two dogs returned to a normal neurologic state. Ten dogs were treated with thiopental after CPR, 7 received 15 mg/kg the first minute, followed by 23 mg/kg over 1 hour; 3 received 60 mg/kg in the first 3 minutes, followed by 30 mg/kg over 1 hour. Except for 1 dog in the low-dose group that recovered neurologically, thiopental-treated dogs showed no neurological or survival improvement over the controls.