Progressive Intracranial Occlusive Disease Associated With Deficiency of Protein S: Report of Two Cases

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Abstract

Background and Purpose

Deficiency of the free fraction of protein S has been associated with arterial or venous stroke. The pathogenesis of vascular occlusion in patients with protein S deficiency is not known. We present two cases of cerebral infarction and deficiency of protein S in which the subjects had progressive intracranial occlusions.

Case Description

A 16-year-old girl was admitted because of left brain stem infarction and protein S deficiency. Cerebral angiography disclosed stenosis of the right intracranial vertebral artery and occlusion of the left posterior cerebral artery. A second angiogram performed 18 months later disclosed occlusion of the right vertebral intracranial artery. In the second case, a 17-year-old girl was admitted because of left hemispheric cerebral infarction and protein S deficiency. Cerebral angiography showed stenosis of the left anterior cerebral artery, left supraclinoid internal artery, and left middle cerebral artery. A second cerebral angiogram performed 5 months later disclosed occlusion of the left anterior cerebral artery and poor hemispheric perfusion through the left middle cerebral artery.

Conclusions

Based on our cases, we postulate that some patients with prothrombotic states may develop progressive intracranial arterial occlusions, possibly secondary to a permanent thrombogenic stimulus. We suggest routinely searching for prothrombotic states in young patients with intracranial occlusion, especially if the occlusion is progressive and other causes are not obvious. (Stroke. 1993;24:1752-1756.)

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