Modeling Intracerebal Hemorrhage: Glutamate, Nuclear Factor-κB Signaling and Cytokines

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A significant amount of new information has been generated in animal models of intracerebral hemorrhage during the past several years. These include findings on the pathophysiological, biochemical and molecular processes that underlie the development of brain tissue injury after intracerebral hemorrhage as well as potential new treatments. We review these various findings that include glutamate receptor activation, oxidative stress development, intracellular signaling through the transcription factor, nuclear factor-κB, and markedly upregulated cytokine gene expression. We also briefly review the surgical treatment for intracerebral hemorrhage and list the pharmacological treatment studies that have recently appeared.

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