Validation of the Stroke Prognostic Instrument-II in a Large, Modern, Community-Based Cohort of Ischemic Stroke Survivors

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Background and Purpose—

The risk of recurrent stroke in the modern era of secondary stroke prevention is not well defined. Several prediction models, including the Stroke Prognostic Instrument-II (SPI-II), have been created to identify patients at highest risk, but their performance in modern populations has been infrequently tested. We aimed to assess the 1-year risk of recurrence after hospital discharge in a recent, large, community-based cohort of patients with ischemic stroke and to validate the SPI-II prediction model in this cohort.


From 2004 through 2006, 5575 patients with acute ischemic stroke were prospectively identified and followed for recurrent events. Kaplan-Meier statistics were used to analyze the cumulative incidence of recurrent ischemic stroke. Harrell c-statistic was calculated to determine the performance of SPI-II in predicting stroke or death at 1 year, and the log-rank test was used to compare the differences among low-, middle-, and high-risk groups.


Among 5575 patients with ischemic stroke, recurrence was observed in 221 during the subsequent year. Kaplan-Meier estimates of cumulative rates of recurrent stroke were 2.5%, 3.6%, and 4.8% at 3, 6, and 12 months, respectively. Rates of stroke or death for SPI-II in the low-, middle-, and high-risk groups were 8.2%, 24.5%, and 35.6%, respectively (trend, P=0.001). The c-statistic for SPI-II was 0.62 (95% CI, 0.61–0.64).


The modern 1-year rate of recurrent stroke after hospital discharge is low but still substantial at 4.8%. SPI-II is a modestly effective tool in identifying patients with ischemic stroke at highest risk of developing recurrence or death.

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