Is Intracerebral Hemorrhage a Time-Dependent Phenomenon After Successful Combined Intravenous and Intra-Arterial Therapy?

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Background and Purpose—Onset-to-reperfusion time (ORT) has recently emerged as an essential prognostic factor in acute ischemic stroke therapy. Although favorable outcome is associated with reduced ORT, it remains unclear whether intracranial bleeding depends on ORT. We therefore sought to determine whether ORT influenced the risk and volume of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) after combined intravenous and intra-arterial therapy.Methods—Based on our prospective registry, we included 157 consecutive acute ischemic stroke patients successfully recanalized with combined intravenous and intra-arterial therapy between April 2007 and October 2011. Primary outcome was any ICH within 24 hours posttreatment. Secondary outcomes included occurrence of symptomatic ICH (sICH) and ICH volume measured with the ABC/2.Results—Any ICH occurred in 26% of the study sample (n=33). sICH occurred in 5.5% (n=7). Median ICH volume was 0.8 mL. ORT was increased in patients with ICH (median=260 minutes; interquartile range=230–306) compared with patients without ICH (median=226 minutes; interquartile range=200–281; P=0.008). In the setting of sICH, ORT reached a median of 300 minutes (interquartile range=276–401; P=0.004). The difference remained significant after adjustment for potential confounding factors (adjusted P=0.045 for ICH; adjusted P=0.002 for sICH). There was no correlation between ICH volume and ORT (r=0.16; P=0.33).Conclusions—ORT influences the rate but not the volume of ICH and appears to be a critical predictor of symptomatic hemorrhage after successful combined intravenous and intra-arterial therapy. To minimize the risk of bleeding, revascularization should be achieved within 4.5 hours of stroke onset.

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