Diabetes Mellitus, Admission Glucose, and Outcomes After Stroke Thrombolysis: A Registry and Systematic Review

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Abstract

Background and Purpose—

The potential detrimental effect of diabetes mellitus and admission glucose level (AGL) on outcomes after stroke thrombolysis is unclear. We evaluated outcomes of patients treated by intravenous and/or intra-arterial therapy, according to diabetes mellitus and AGL.

Methods—

We analyzed data from a patient registry (n=704) and conducted a systematic review of previous observational studies. The primary study outcome was the percentage of patients who achieved a favorable outcome (modified Rankin score ≤2 at 3 months).

Results—

We identified 54 previous reports that evaluated the effect of diabetes mellitus or AGL on outcomes after thrombolysis. In an unadjusted meta-analysis that included our registry data and previous available observational data, diabetes mellitus was associated with less favorable outcome (odds ratio [OR], 0.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.73–0.79) and more symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (OR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.21–1.56). However, in multivariable analysis, diabetes mellitus remained associated with less favorable outcome (OR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.69–0.87) but not with symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.83–1.48). In unadjusted and in adjusted meta-analysis, higher AGL was associated with less favorable outcome and more symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage; the adjusted OR (95% CI) per 1 mmol/L increase in AGL was 0.92 (0.90–0.94) for favorable outcome, and 1.09 (1.04–1.14) for symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage.

Conclusions—

These results confirm that AGL and history of diabetes mellitus are associated with poor clinical outcome after thrombolysis. AGL may be a surrogate marker of brain infarction severity rather than a causal factor. However, randomized controlled evidences are needed to address the significance of a tight glucose control during thrombolysis on clinical outcome.

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