White Matter Edema at the Early Stage of Cerebral Autosomal-Dominant Arteriopathy With Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy

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Abstract

Background and Purpose—

Recently, in a mouse model of cerebral autosomal-dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy, a monogenic cerebral small vessel disease, intramyelinic edema was detected in the white matter (WM) early during the course of the disease. We hypothesized that if this mechanism holds true in patients, it would translate in larger WM volume. We aimed to measure WM volume in patients with cerebral autosomal-dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy in comparison with age- and sex-matched controls, along with the ratio of cortical surface area to the volume of brain hemispheres as an indirect measure that should be reduced in patients.

Methods—

Twenty patients at the early stage of the disease (Mini Mental State Examination >24 and modified Rankin scale ≤1) and 27 age- and sex-matched controls had high-quality 3-Tesla 3DT1 MRI acquisitions. Volumes of brain hemispheres and of WM were determined. The ratio of cortical surface area to the volume of brain hemispheres was evaluated as a proxy of underlying WM volume.

Results—

Patients had larger volumes of WM than controls (patients: 479.4±71.7; controls: 463.9±44.2; P=0.03). They presented a lower cortical surface area and cortical volume leading to a lower ratio of cortical surface area to the volume of brain hemispheres (patients: 15.7±0.7; controls: 16.1±0.5; P=0.004). Volume of WM tended to be associated with that of WM hyperintensities (P=0.06).

Conclusions—

Patients with cerebral autosomal-dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy have larger WM volume than age- and sex-matched controls, a finding compatible with the hypothesis of intramyelinic edema as observed recently in mice.

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