Risk Analysis of Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms: Prospective 10-Year Cohort Study

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Abstract

Background and Purpose—

The natural history of unruptured intracranial aneurysms remains unclear, and management strategy is not well defined.

Methods—

From January 2003 to December 2012, we enrolled patients with aneurysm in our institution. In total, 2252 patients with 2897 aneurysms were eligible for analysis, and 1960 eligible aneurysms were conservatively managed. Precise 3-dimensional evaluation was conducted using computed tomography angiography, digital subtraction angiography, or magnetic resonance angiography. We then assessed the risk of aneurysm rupture, mortality, and morbidity associated with aneurysm characteristics, demographics, and known health/lifestyle risk factors.

Results—

The mean follow-up duration was 7388 aneurysm-years. During observation, 56 aneurysms ruptured, resulting in an overall rupture rate per year of 0.76% (95% confidence interval, 0.58–0.98). The mean initial visit to rupture interval was 547 days. Aneurysm size, location, daughter sac, and history of subarachnoid hemorrhage were significant independent predictors for aneurysm rupture. Aneurysms that were ≥5 mm were associated with a significantly increased risk of rupture when compared with 2- to 4-mm aneurysms (unadjusted hazard ratio, 12.24; 95% confidence interval, 7.15–20.93). Of 56 patients who experienced hemorrhage, 29 (52 %) died or were rendered severely disabled. Of the patients who had large or giant aneurysms, none recovered without deficits, and the mortality rate after rupture was 69%. For aneurysms sized <5 mm, the mortality rate was 18%.

Conclusions—

Larger aneurysms are at greater risk for rupture and poor outcome. Ethnic factors may play a role in the risk of rupture.

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