Introduction: The safety and efficacy of intraarterial treatment (IAT) for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) due to cervical artery dissection (CAD, carotid and vertebral) has not been studied in a controlled trial.
Hypothesis: There will be no differences in safety and efficacy of IAT for AIS due to CAD compared to non-CAD mechanism.
Methods: We studied consecutive admissions with AIS who received IAT between 1/2010 - 4/2015 and compared outcomes for AIS patients who presented with CAD mechanism vs. other causes. Outcomes included in-hospital mortality, symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH), procedural complications, and functional independence (Modified Rankin Score ≤ 2 at 90-days or discharge, or discharge home). Outcomes were univariately analyzed with Chi-square tests. Co-primary outcomes of functional independence and sICH were analyzed with multivariate logistic regression.
Results: Of 3,671 patients with AIS, 445 patients received IAT and comprise our study population: 24 with CAD (5%: 18 carotid, 6 vertebral) and 421 with another cause. Patients with CAD were younger (median age: 52 vs. 70, p < 0.001) with less severe stroke (median NIHSS: 13 vs. 18, p=0.03) than those with another cause of AIS. Unadjusted outcomes were similar by AIS cause (Table 1). After adjustment for NIHSS and age, the odds of achieving functional independence (OR: 0.58 [0.19-1.78], p=0.34) and sICH (OR: 0.57 [0.07-4.66], p=0.60) were not significantly different in patients with CAD vs. other mechanism.
Conclusions: Intraarterial treatment appears to be as safe and effective when used in patients with ischemic stroke due to CAD as in AIS patients with other causes. Following the major advances in IAT for AIS in the general population, IAT should be considered in patients with AIS due to a CAD.