Introduction: Identifying factors associated with short term outcome following carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is important to improve patient selection. There are limited data assessing 30-day major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE: stroke, myocardial infarction (MI) and death) in clinical practice.
Hypothesis: We hypothesized that patients fulfilling SAPPHIRE high risk (SHR) or exclusion (SEC) criteria contribute to worse outcomes in a real-life cohort.
Methods: Patients undergoing CEA at 2 centers between 1998 and 2010 were prospectively entered into a database. Baseline characteristics, comorbidities, SHR and SEC were assessed using Cox regression to determine predictors for the MACCE 30-day endpoint.
Results: The analysis included 748 operations, 262 (35%) asymptomatic , 211 (28%) with previous strokes, and 278 (37%) with transient ischemic attacks (TIA). The overall MACCE rate was 6.7%, 5.0% of asymptomatic and 7.6% in symptomatic patients. SEC patients (n=137) had a MACCE rate of 14.7%; after exclusion, the MACCE rate of the remainder dropped to 4.9% (3.5% in asymptomatic and 5.4% in symptomatic patients). Hazard ratio (HR) for SEC was 3.605 (p=0.0001) after adjustment for symptomatic status. SHR patients did not show a significantly increased event rate (HR 1.714, p=0.16). In multivariate analysis diabetes (HR 2.019, p=0.02), symptomatic status (HR 2.015, p=0.049) and prior MI (HR 1.957, p=0.03) showed an independent influence on MACCE.
Conclusion: High risk clinical characteristics, as defined by the SAPPHIRE study were not independently associated with 30-day increased risk of MACCE, although exclusion criteria from that study, diabetes, symptomatic status and prior MI were associated with outcomes.