Background and Purpose: The effects of the clipping or coiling treatment on patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) remain elusive. We performed a nationwide study to compare the effects of clipping with those of coiling in patients with SAH by using the Japanese Diagnosis Procedure Combination (DPC) database.
Materials and methods: We analyzed data obtained from patients who were hospitalized for SAH in 427 certified training institutions of the Japan Neurosurgical Society between April 2012 and March 2013. Outcomes regarding in-hospital mortality, modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores, cerebral infarction, and complications were compared between clipping and coiling groups using mixed model analysis and propensity score matching analysis. In addition, we conducted a questionnaire-based survey regarding comprehensive stroke center (CSC) capabilities. The questionnaire elicited data regarding the availability of personnel, diagnostic techniques, specific expertise, infrastructure, and educational components recommended for CSCs in 749 professional training institutions on February 2011.
Results: Data obtained from a total of 5214 patients with SAH (3624 clipping, 1590 coiling) were analyzed. Mixed model analysis (OR=1.30, P=0.013) and propensity score matching analysis (OR=1.35, P=0.022) revealed that the in-hospital mortality was significantly higher in the coiling group, while both analyses revealed that the discharge mRS was not significantly different between groups. Clipping of intracranial aneurysms (IAs) and operating rooms staffed 24/7 were available in 91.5% and 60.4% of 749 hospitals, respectively. Coiling of IAs and interventional services coverage 24/7 were available in 48.1% and 37.3% of 749 hospitals, respectively.
Conclusions: This study demonstrated that clipping is superior to coiling for SAH patients. In Japan, the number of hospitals where coiling is available is still considerably lower than the number of hospitals where of clipping is available. The differences among hospitals may be associated with the increased in-hospital mortality in the patients undergoing coiling. This nationwide database study can complement the findings of prospective clinical trials, and reflect real-world practice.