Background: Elevated blood glucose (BG) levels at admission following acute ischemic stroke (AIS) have been associated with adverse clinical outcomes in thrombolytic and non-thrombolytic treated patients. This association has been inconsistent and has not been studied after mechanical thrombectomy (MT). The current study looks at multiple BG parameters and their association with outcome following MT in AIS.
Methods: AIS patients undergoing MT with a retrievable stent between 2012 and 2016 at two stroke centers were studied. Favorable clinical outcome was defined as having a modified Rankin Scale score (mRS) of 0-2 at three months. Admission BG, maximum BG during the hospital stay, and serial measurements every 4-6 hours in the first 24 hours were recorded. The following demographic and clinical data was also collected: age, sex, baseline NIHSS score, onset-to-reperfusion times, HgA1c, and stroke mechanism.
Results: Seventy-nine patients were identified (mean age 69, 49% male, SEM= 1.56); thirty-three patients had a favorable clinical outcome at three months and 46 had unfavorable outcomes. In univariate analysis, BG variability (standard deviation of BG, SD) in the first 24 hours following admission and maximum BG during hospital stay was associated with unfavorable outcomes (Table 1). The association between admission BG and favorable outcome was not statistically significant. In multivariate logistic regression analysis the SD of BG (OR= 1.08, 95% CI= 1.02-1.13, P= .005) had the highest predictive value for favorable outcome.
Conclusions: Greater BG variability is associated with worse clinical outcome in patients with AIS undergoing MT. Using SD and/or serial measurements of BG appear better than single BG measurements at predicting clinical outcome in this population.