Background: There is very limited data on the use of advanced neuroimaging to select patients with acute ischemic stroke and large vessel occlusion for intraarterial therapy beyond 6 hours from onset. Our aim is to report the outcome of patients with acute ischemic stroke and large artery occlusion who presented beyond 6 hours from onset, had favorable MRI imaging profile, and underwent mechanical embolectomy.
Methods: This is a single institution retrospective study between December 1st, 2015, and July 30th, 2016 with acute ischemic stroke and anterior circulation large vessel occlusion (LVO) with ASPECTS of 6 or more and beyond 6 hours from symptoms onset. Favorable imaging profile was defined as 1) DWI lesion volume (as defined as apparent diffusion coefficient < 620 X 10-6 mm2/s) of 70 mL or less AND 2) Penumbra volume (as defined by volume of tissue with Tmax >6 sec) of 15 mL or greater AND 3) A mismatch ratio of 1.8 or more AND 4) Volume of tissue with perfusion lesion with Tmax > 10 sec is less than 100 mL. Good outcome was defined as a 90 day mRS≤2.
Results: In the study period, 41 patients met the inclusion criteria; 22 (53.6%) had favorable imaging profile and underwent mechanical embolectomy. The median age was 75 years (59-92), 68.2% were females; the median time from last known normal to groin puncture was 684.5 minutes (range 363-1628) and the median admission NIHSS score was 17.5 (range 4-28). The rate of good outcomes in this series was similar to that in a patient level pooled meta-analysis of the recent endovascular trials (68.2% vs. 46.0%, p=0.07). The rate of good outcome matches that of the EXTEND-IA trial that selected patients using perfusion imaging (68.2% vs. 71.0%, p = 1.00). None of the patients in our cohort had symptomatic intracereberal hemorrhage.
Conclusion: Advanced MR imaging may help select patients with acute ischemic stroke and anterior circulation large vessel occlusion for embolectomy beyond the treatment window used in most endovascular trials.