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Introduction: Revascularization is a robust therapy for acute ischemic stroke, but animal studies suggest that reperfusion edema may attenuate its beneficial effects. In stroke patients, early reperfusion consistently reduces infarct volume and improves long-term functional outcome, but there is little clinical data available regarding reperfusion edema. We sought to elucidate the relationship between reperfusion and brain edema in a patient cohort of moderate to severe stroke.Methods: Seventy-one patients enrolled in the Echoplanar Imaging Thrombolysis Evaluation Trial (EPITHET) with serial brain magnetic resonance imaging and perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) were analyzed. Reperfusion percentage was calculated based on the difference in PWI lesion volume at baseline and follow-up (day 3-5). Midline shift (MLS) was measured on the day 3-5 fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequence. Swelling volume and infarct growth volume were assessed using region-of-interest analysis on the baseline and follow-up DWI scans based on our prior methods.Results: Greater percentage of reperfusion was associated with less MLS (Spearman ρ = -0.46; P<0.0001) and reduced swelling volume (Spearman ρ = -0.56; P<0.0001). In multivariate analysis, reperfusion was an independent predictor of less MLS (P<0.006) and decreased swelling volume (P<0.0054), after adjusting for age, baseline NIHSS, admission blood glucose, baseline DWI volume, and IV tPA treatment.Conclusions: Reperfusion is associated with reduced brain edema as measured by MLS and swelling volume. While our data do not exclude the possibility of reperfusion edema in certain circumstances, in stroke patients, reperfusion following acute stroke is predominantly linked to less brain swelling.