Background: As key components of the AHA Life’s Simple 7 campaign, lifestyle modifications play an integral role in the prevention of vascular disease. Little is known about the prevalence of lifestyle modification counseling in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS). We sought to investigate disparities in the delivery of lifestyle interventions to AIS patients in the large NINDS-funded FL-PR CReSD Registry of Get With The Guidelines-Stroke (GWTG-S) data.
Methods: GWTG-S collects data on the provision of several lifestyle interventions including counseling on exercise/weight loss, Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes (TLC) diet, diabetes (DM) education and antihypertensive (low sodium) diet. 80,598 AIS cases were prospectively included from 82 sites (69 FL; 13 PR) from 2010-2016. Multilevel logistic regression models adjusted for age, race, and aphasia were used to evaluate differences in the provision of lifestyle interventions as indicated for patients prior to hospital discharge.
Results: Among AIS cases, 51% were men, 62% non-Hispanic White (NHW), 18% NH-Black (NHB), 13% FL-Hispanic (FLH), and 6% PR-Hispanic (PRH). Mean age was 71±14 years. The highest mean BMI was in PRH (29±7 kg/m2), with the lowest in NHW (27±6 kg/m2) and FLH (28±6 kg/m2). Despite this, PRH were less likely to receive exercise/weight loss counseling compared to NHW (OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.20-0.90) and FLH (OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.22-0.97). PRH also had lower odds of receiving TLC diet counseling compared to NHW and FLH (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.15-0.68). Though NHB presented with higher rates of DM compared to NHW (38% vs. 25%), they were less likely to receive DM education (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.91-0.99). Women were less likely to receive TLC diet counseling (OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.90-0.98) and DM education (OR 0.94, CI 0.92-0.97) compared to men. Despite higher HTN frequency in women and NHB (67% and 69%), both were less likely to receive low sodium diet recommendations as compared to men (OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.92-0.97) and NHW (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.91-0.99).
Conclusion: Overall, disparities were identified in the provision of several lifestyle interventions in AIS patients. These interventions can benefit all and providers should continue counseling patients regarding modifiable risk factors to prevent future stroke.