Instruction: Children with brain arteriovenous malformations (bAVM) are at risk of life-threatening hemorrhage in their early lives. Our aim was to analyze various angiographic features of bAVM in conjunction with other morphological risk factors to predict the risk of subsequent hemorrhage during follow-up in children.
Methods: We identified all consecutive children admitted to our institution for bAVMs between July 2009 and September 2015. Children with at least 1 month of treatment-free follow-up after diagnosis were included in further analysis. The effects of bAVM features on hemorrhagic presentation were studied. Annual rates of AVM rupture as well as several potential risk factors for subsequent hemorrhage were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier analyses and Cox proportional hazards regression models.
Results: We identified 110 patients with a mean follow-up period of 2.1 years (range, 1 month-15.4 years). The average annual risk of hemorrhage from untreated AVMs was 4.3%. Risk factors predicting hemorrhagic presentation in multivariable analysis were no generalized venous ectasia, deep venous drainage, fast arteriovenous shunt, and deep location. No generalized venous ectasia in conjunction with fast arteriovenous shunt was predictive of subsequent hemorrhage (RR, 7.55; 95%CI, 1.96-29.06). The annual rupture risk was 11.1% in bAVMs without generalized venous ectasia but with fast arteriovenous shunt.
Conclusions: bAVM angiographic features suggesting unbalanced inflow and outflow might be helpful to identify children at higher risk for hemorrhage. No generalized venous ectasia and fast artriovenous shunt might be associated with an increased risk for hemorrhagic presentation and subsequent hemorrhage in pediatric patients with untreated bAVM.