1cerebrovascular medicine, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Cntr, Suita, Japan2Neurology, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Cntr, Suita, Japan3Div of Stroke Care Unit, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Cntr, Suita, Japan
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Background and Purpose: Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are now considered to be one of the neuroimaging markers of cerebral small vessel disease. It has been reported that CMBs are associated with age, hypertension, cognitive impairment, and use of antithrombotic drugs. We aimed at identifying factors associated with the presence of CMBs among acute ischemic stroke patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) who participated in the multicenter Stroke Acute Management with Urgent Risk-factor Assessment and Improvement (SAMURAI)-NVAF study.Methods: Acute ischemic stroke/transient ischemic attack (within 7 days of onset) patients with NVAF who underwent T2*-weighted images on magnetic resonance imagings at baseline were included in the analysis. Factors associated with the presence of CMBs were assessed in univariable and multivariable logistic regression models.Results: Of 1,099 (77.6±10.0 years, 620 male) participants, 256 (23.2%) had CMBs: single CMB in 96 (8.7%), 2-4 of CMBs in 109 (9.9%), and ≥5 CMBs in 51 (4.6%). The presence of CMBs was associated with age [per 10 years, odds ratio (OR) 1.21; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.44], past history of stroke (OR 1.52; 95% CI 1.09-2.11), and advanced cognitive impairment (OR 1.64; 95% CI 1.02-2.61) in multivariable analysis adjusted for sex, hypertension, arterial disease, ever smoking, premorbid antithrombotic medications, and estimated glomerular filtration rate. Among 514 patients (46.8% of the participants) with the data of urinary albumin, clinical albuminuria (urinary albumin ≥300 mg/gCr) and past history of stroke were identified as independent factors associated with CMBs (OR 1.91; 95% CI 1.06-3.42 and 1.67; 1.04-2.66, respectively).Conclusions: Approximately one fourth of acute ischemic stroke patients with NVAF had CMBs. Past history of stroke and clinical albuminuria were identified as independent determinants of CMBs on top of established ones.Clinical Trial Registration: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01581502.