Introduction: Cerebral small vessel diseases (SVDs) i.e. white matter lesion and cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are related to the patients with stroke more deeply than those without. In general population, in addition to age, hypertension, diabetes chronic kidney diseases (CKD) is well known to be related to SVDs, but it remains unclear in patients with stroke. We investigated the relationship between CKD and the presence of SVDs in patients with acute ischemic stroke.
Methods: We enrolled 493 patients with acute ischemic stroke patients or transient ischemic attack patients (mean age 71; 60% male) who had undergone 1.5T MR imaging within a week of the index events from April 2013 to march 2015. We evaluated kidney function by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) with the modification of diet in Renal Disease. CKD was defined as an eGFR less than 60mil/min/1.73m2. CMBs were defined as focal areas of very low signal intensity smaller than 10mm. White matter lesion as Periventricular hyper intensity (PVH)>grade 2 and Deep and Subcortical White Matter Hyper intensity (DSWMH)> grade 2 were defied as advanced PVH and advanced DSWMH, respectively. We investigated relationship between CKD and CMBs, advanced PVH and advanced DSWMH using a logistic regression analysis.
Results: We noted CMBs in 173 patients (35%), PVH in 81 (16%), and DSWMH in 151 (31%). An univariate analysis revealed that the age, CKD, history of stroke, and antiplatelet agents were associated with presence of CMBs, advanced PVH and severe DSWMH . The multivariate analysis revealed that CMBs, advanced PVH and advanced DSWMH were associated with age (CMBs: odds ratio(OR) ; 1.32 ; 95% confidence interval(CI), 1.10-1.60, p=0.004, advanced PVH : OR ; 3.00 ; 95% CI, 2.17-4.26, p<0.01, advanced DSWMH: OR ; 1.94; 95% CI, 1.56-2.45, p<0.01 ), history of stroke(CMBs : OR ; 2.01 ; 95% CI, 1.21-3.34, p=0.007, advanced PVH : OR ; 2.25 ; 95% CI, 1.18-4.27, p=0.01, advanced DSWMH: OR ; 1.78 ; 95% CI, 1.03-3.06, p=0.038). CKD was associated with CMBs (OR ; 1.62 ; 95% CI, 1.04-2.52, p=0.03), but PVH and DSWMH were not.
Conclusions: It seems that age and history of stroke are related to CMBs, advanced PVH and advanced DSWMH, and that CKD is associates with CMBs but not with either advanced PVH or advanced DSWMH.