Introduction: Occurrence of stroke and myocardial infarction (MI) after carotid endarterectomy or stenting have each been associated with increased later mortality.
Methods: In the Carotid Revascularization Endarterectomy versus Stenting Trial (CREST) 69 strokes, 37 protocol MIs, and 19 biomarker + only events occurred within 30 days among 2272 patients followed up to 10 years. Mortality was determined and compared for patients with stroke, MI, or biomarker + only to those without. Cox proportional hazard models adjusting for age, sex, symptomatic status and treatment were calculated to assess the relationship between mortality and stroke and mortality and MI status. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were plotted.
Results: Patients with peri-procedural stroke had a 67% greater likelihood of long-term mortality compared to those without stroke (HR=1.67, 95% CI 1.15,2.43; p<0.007)(Figure A). Patients with a protocol MI had a 249% greater likelihood of mortality, and biomarker+ only patients had a 104% greater likelihood of mortality, compared to those without MI (HR=3.49; 95%CI 2.20,5.53, p<0.0001; and HR=2.04; 95% CI 1.09,3.83, p=0.03)(Figure B).
Discussion: Stroke, MI, and biomarker + only events following CEA or CAS are associated with increased long-term mortality. The higher risk for MI may be a marker for patients with serious underlying heart disease, rather than causal, providing an opportunity to decrease long-term mortality through aggressive diagnostic evaluation and preventive treatment.