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Background and Purpose: To investigate the association between arterial stiffness, measured by brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), and severity of dilated perivascular space (PVS) in a population-based sample.Methods: Participants were recruited from an ongoing Chinese community-based cohort study. Stroke-free participants, who completed baPWV and brain MRI, were included. Severity of PVS was rated in the basal ganglia (PVS-BG) and white matter (PVS-WM) in high-resolution 3D T1-weighted images. We used logistic regression model to evaluate the association between baPWV and MRI markers. Subsequently, we explored associations in strata of age.Results: A total of 953 participants were included (mean age, 55.7 years, 37.6% male). Age and mean arterial blood pressure were major determinants of baPWV. BaPWV was independently associated with the severity of PVS in white matter (OR per SD,1.39; 95%CI, 1.07-1.81), with periventricular hyperintensities (OR per SD,1.44, 95%CI, 1.10-1.87) and deep white matter hyperintensities (OR per SD,1.44, 95%CI, 1.05-1.97), but not with lacunes. When stratifying by age, baPWV was significantly associated with PVS-WM and PVS-BG only in younger group (age<60), while the association between baPWV and WMH or lacunes was more evident in older group (age≥60).Conclusions: BaPWV was independently associated with severity of PVS, especially in younger individuals. This finding provided further evidences of the relationship between arterial stiffness and cerebral small vessel disease.