|| Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) causes rapid recruitment of circulating leukocytes to the injury; however, the roles of these cells in disease progression and repair in the brain are poorly understood. Findings from animal models have failed to translate into effective therapies for ICH, emphasizing the importance of studying the ICH immune response in the patient population. To gain insight into the inflammatory response in patient hematomas, we are utilizing mass cytometry, flow cytometry, and RNA-seq to characterize hematoma-infiltrating leukocytes isolated from ICH patients over a 5 day period, in conjunction with the ongoing MISTIE III trial for surgical evacuation of ICH. We have found that the hematoma immune infiltrate is predominantly composed of neutrophils and macrophages recruited from the circulation, rather than CNS-resident microglia. We have observed that hematoma macrophages have acquired a distinct phenotype differing from phagocyte populations in the peripheral blood, suggesting that their gene expression is controlled by local signals in the hematoma. Preliminary transcriptional analysis of hematoma macrophages 24-50 hours post-ICH has revealed an inflammatory profile characterized by increased expression of antigen presentation, TLR signaling, glycolytic metabolism, and prostaglandin production pathways (Figure 1). Intriguingly, by 100 hours post-ICH, macrophages downregulated these pathways and engaged a wound healing program characterized by TGF-beta signaling, fatty acid metabolism, and collagen deposition (Figure 1). These findings, in agreement with our previous results in animal models of ICH, suggest that recruited macrophages may contribute not only to initial inflammatory damage, but also to clearance of the hematoma and resolution of inflammation, making them potentially ideal targets for therapeutic intervention.