Abstract TP240: The PLUMBER (Prevalence of Large Vessel Occlusion Stroke in Mecklenburg County Emergency Response) Study


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Abstract

Introduction: Regional Emergency Medical System (EMS) protocols for acute stroke endorse routing patients with possible large vessel occlusion (LVO) acute ischemic strokes (AIS) directly to endovascular centers. These routing algorithms include prehospital stroke severity screens (PSSS) to determine the likelihood of an LVO AIS. An essential, but unreported, determinant of the predictive value of PSSS tools is the prevalence of LVO AIS stroke in the EMS population screened for stroke.Hypothesis: Among EMS patients transported to Mecklenburg county hospitals screened for stroke, acute LVO AIS prevalence ranges from 5-10%.Methods: We are conducting a prospective, observational study of all patients transported by the Mecklenburg county EMS agency who are either (1) dispatched as a possible stroke and/or (2) with a primary impression of stroke recorded by prehospital providers. We are reviewing medical records and neurovascular imaging studies to determine an acute LVO AIS diagnosis and the site(s) of occlusion.Results: Thus far, over a six-month period we have enrolled 1441 patients, of whom 33% (n=480) had a diagnosis consistent with acute stroke (ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, or transient ischemic attack), with 20% (n=287) being an AIS. Eighty-eight percent (n=253) of AIS patients underwent an intracranial CTA or MRA. The prevalence of LVO stroke in the EMS population enrolled was 5.7% (n= 82, 95% CI 4.6-7.0%), with the most common vessel occluded being M1 (n=46, 56% of LVO AIS). The prevalence of LVO AIS in patients dispatched as a possible stroke was 4.8% (n =56; 95% CI 3.6-6.1%), while the prevalence in patients with a primary impression of stroke was 10% (n=74; 95% CI 8.2-13%).Conclusions: Among patients screened for stroke by our county’s EMS agency, the prevalence of LVO AIS is low. This low LVO AIS prevalence, combined with a PSSS tool with modest accuracy, will yield poor predictive value for LVO AIS in an EMS population, resulting in a substantial rate of over-triage of non-LVO patients to endovascular centers. Data collection is ongoing to determine the accuracy of a prehospital stroke screen in identifying LVO AIS patients.

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