|| Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid
Introduction: Mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) has been identified as a secretion protein, which biases immune cells toward an anti-inflammatory phenotype, thereby promoting tissue repair after various injuries to neurons in vivo or in vitro. However, the function of MANF during and after brain ischemia is still not known. The purpose of our study was to examine the characteristics and implication of MANF expression induced by focal cerebral ischemia. In addition we investigated if docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) potentiates MANF mRNA expression and provides additional neuroprotection.Methods: Male SD (280-320) rats were anesthetized with isoflurane and subjected to 2 h of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) by intraluminal suture. DHA (5 mg/kg; n=13) or vehicle (saline; n=8) was administered IV at 3 h after the onset of MCAo. Neurological function was evaluated during occlusion (60 min) and on days 1, 3 and 7 after MCAo. MANF mRNA expression, protein levels, and apoptosis were measured by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting.Results: Behavioral deficit was significantly improved by treatment with DHA compared to vehicle on days 1, 3 and 7. MANF was found to be extremely upregulated in the ischemic penumbra. The expression of MANF was neuronal in the cortex and dentate gyrus. DHA administration significantly increased the number of MANF+/NeuN+ cells in the cortex (by 76.6 %) and dentate gyrus (by 20.5 %) compared to saline-treated animals. The number of MANF/NeuN-positive cells was not different in the subcortex, CA1 and CA3 regions between DHA- and saline-treated groups. Treatment with DHA increased MANF+/GFAP+ cells in the subcortex (by 27.7 %) and dentate gyrus (by 38.0 %) compared to the vehicle-treated brains. Total and cortical infarct volumes were attenuated by DHA treatment by 48 % and by 73 % compared to vehicle treatment at 24 h after MCAo.Conclusion: MANF mRNA expression and protein levels are increased after focal cerebral ischemia. It was found to be extremely upregulated in the ischemic penumbra and dentate gyrus. The expression of MANF was mostly neuronal and astrocytic. DHA potentiates MANF expression and provides additional neuroprotection.