Intro: There have been case reports of ischemic infarcts after treatment with prothrombotics for anticoagulation reversal following spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), though there have been no systematic studies evaluating MRI infarction following prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) or factor eight inhibitor bypassing activity (FEIBA) administration. We evaluated the prevalence of ischemic infarcts on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in ICH patients who received prothrombotics compared to those who did not.
Methods: We performed a retrospective review of patients admitted with ICH between January 2013 and April 2016 in whom MRI brain with DWI imaging was performed within 2 weeks of admission and prior to digital subtraction angiography. PCC (4-factor Kcentra, weight, and INR based dosing) was administered to patients on warfarin at the time of ictus with a INR≥1.4 and FEIBA (50 u/kg) was given to patients exposed to an oral Factor Xa inhibitor or direct thrombin inhibitor if ICH occurred within 3-5 half lives of the last dose. Acute ischemia was defined as DWI hyperintensity with corresponding apparent diffusion coefficient hypointensity. Perihematoma lesions, and procedure-related infarctions were excluded from analysis. Groups were compared using chi-square and Wilcoxon Rank Sum tests.
Results: A total of 254 patients were enrolled. Of these, 41 (16%) received either 4-factor PCC (n=33) or FEIBA (n=8). Comparing those who received prothrombotics to those who did not, there was no difference in age (median 68 with prothrombotics and without; p=0.724), sex (44% female in both groups; p=0.977), initial NIH Stroke Scale (median 6 versus 8, p=0.838), or hematoma volume (median 15ml versus 10ml; p=0.207). Patients who received prothrombotics were more likely to have lobar ICH than deep ICH (71% versus 47%; p=0.005). DWI infarctions were found in 16% of patients who receive PCC or FEIBA compared with 22% who did not (p=0.404).
Conclusions: Our data suggests prothrombotics do not increase the risk of acute ischemic infarcts within two weeks of administration.