Background: We evaluated 3-month neurologic, functional, cognitive, and quality of life (QOL) outcomes in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) overall, and by sex and ethnicity in a population-based community study.
Methods: Spontaneous ICH patients were identified from the Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi (BASIC) project from November 2008 to December 2013. Demographics and Glasgow Coma Scale were abstracted from medical records. Outcomes assessed included neurologic (National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS): range, 0-42), functional (activities of daily living/instrumental activities of daily living: range 1-4, higher worse), cognitive (Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (mMMSE): range, 0-100), and QOL (Short-form Stroke Specific QOL scale: range, 0-5, higher better). Ethnic and sex differences were assessed with Tobit regression adjusted for age, sex or ethnicity, and presenting Glasgow Coma Scale.
Results: A total of 245 patients completed baseline interviews, with 103 (42%) dying prior to follow-up, leaving 142 eligible for outcome assessment. 3-month follow up was completed on 100 (neurologic), 107 (functional), 79 (cognitive), and 83 (QOL) participants. Median age was 66 (interquartile range (IQR), 58.0-77.0). The overall median 3-month NIHSS was 2.0 (IQR, 1.0-6.0), with other baseline characteristics and outcomes shown in Table 1. Cognitive outcomes were worse in Mexican Americans (MA) compared to non-Hispanic Whites (NHW) after multivariable adjustment (MA scoring 13.3 mMMSE points lower than NHW (95% CI: 5.8, 20.7; p=.0005)). There was no difference by sex or ethnicity in neurological, functional, or QOL outcomes either before or after adjustment.
Conclusions: In this population-based study, ICH survivors have remarkably favorable neurologic, functional, cognitive and QOL outcomes. There is an important disparity for worse cognitive outcome in MAs compared with NHWs.